kVp - kilovoltage peak is the MAJOR factor in overall contrast and determines quality of beam. Increasing kVp decreases image contrast.
grids - reduces scatter radiation. As the grid ratio increases, the contrast also increases.
OID - when the object to image distance increases so does contrast (small factor). Air gap technique.
beam restriction - collimation increases contrast
filtration - removes low energy x-rays and increased filtration decreases overall contrast
body part/pathology - thicker body parts or denser tissue decrease contrast
kVp - kilovoltage peak is a lesser factor in density and follows the 15% Rule. A 15% increase in kVp will yield twice the density.
mAs - millamperage per second is the MAJOR factor in controlling density.
SID - source to image distance follows inverse square law. Double the SID and the image density will be reduced by 1/4 (25%).
anode heel effect - decreases density for body parts under the anode and increases density for parts under the cathode
beam restriction - collimation decreases density
body part thickness/pathology - thicker body parts and denser tissue from pathology will decrease density
filtration - removes low energy x-rays and increasing filtration decreases density
grids - decrease overall density
tube angle - minimize Shape distortion by keeping the beam centered on the body part
body part angle - minimize Shape distortion by keeping the body part perpindicular to the central ray
IR angle - minimize Size distortion by keeping OID low, and minimize Shape distortion by keeping image receptor perpindicular to central ray
SID - major factor for Size distortion or magnification and standard protocols should be followed to minimize.
OID - high object to image distance produces Size distortion or commonly termed magnification
body part thickness - using the anode heel effect place the thicker section of body part toward cathode end to minimize Size Distortion (magnification)
Recorded Detail - Spatial Resolution
Angle - keeping the central ray perpindicular to the body part contriubtes to best recorded detail
motion - patient motion causes blurring and reduces detail
focal spot size - smaller focal spot(smaller filament) size yields better recorded detail and large focal spot increases blur
SID - greater SID improves recorded detail
OID - when Object to Image distance increases the recorded detail decreases. When OID decreases then recorded detail is improved.
body part thickness - body part thickness can increase OID and reduce detail/sharpness
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Radiographic Image Quality Factors